The group of Dr. Irene Groot investigates the structure-activity relationship of catalysts under industrial conditions using operando scanning probe microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, surface X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. She focuses on industrial processes related to sustainable energy and materials production. The nanoscale structure of a catalyst under reaction conditions determines its activity, selectivity, and stability. For the production of sustainable energy and materials, new catalysts are needed. By understanding the structure-activity relationships of catalysts under reaction conditions, insight in the development of these new catalysts can be obtained. Using in situ imaging techniques under industrial conditions, we are currently studying Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, NO reduction and oxidation, hydrodesulfurization, and chlorine production.